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The notion of the Levant has undergone a dynamic process of historical evolution in usage, meaning, and understanding. While the term "Levantine" originally referred to the European residents of the eastern Mediterranean region, it later came to refer to regional "native" and "minority" groups.

The term became current in English in the 16th century, along with the first English merchant adventurers in the region; English ships appeared in the Mediterranean in the s, and the English merchant company signed its agreement " capitulations " with the Ottoman Sultan in At this time, the Far East was known as the "Upper Levant".

In early 19th-century travel writing , the term sometimes incorporated certain Mediterranean provinces of the Ottoman empire , as well as independent Greece and especially the Greek islands.

In 19th-century archaeology, it referred to overlapping cultures in this region during and after prehistoric times, intending to reference the place instead of any one culture.

The French mandate of Syria and Lebanon — was called the Levant states. Today, "Levant" is the term typically used by archaeologists and historians with reference to the history of the region.

Scholars have adopted the term Levant to identify the region due to it being a "wider, yet relevant, cultural corpus" that does not have the "political overtones" of Syria-Palestine.

Archaeologists seeking a neutral orientation that is neither biblical nor national have used terms such as Levantine archaeology and archaeology of the Southern Levant.

While the usage of the term "Levant" in academia has been restricted to the fields of archeology and literature, there is a recent attempt to reclaim the notion of the Levant as a category of analysis in political and social sciences.

The largest religious group in the Levant are the Muslims and the largest cultural-linguistic group are Arabs , due to the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 7th century and subsequent Arabization of the region.

Until the establishment of the modern State of Israel in , Jews lived throughout the Levant alongside Muslims and Christians; since then, almost all have been expelled from their homes and sought refuge in Israel.

Armenians mostly belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. There are also Circassians , Turks , Samaritans , and Nawars. In addition, this region has a number of sites that are of religious significance , such as Al-Aqsa Mosque , [42] the Church of the Holy Sepulchre , [43] and the Western Wall [44] in Jerusalem.

In addition to the varieties normally grouped together as "Levantine", a number of other varieties and dialects of Arabic are spoken in the Levant area, such as Levantine Bedawi Arabic and Mesopotamian Arabic.

Among the languages of Israel , the official language is Hebrew ; Arabic was until July 19, , also an official language. Of the languages of Cyprus , the majority language is Greek, followed by Turkish in the north.

Two minority languages are recognized: Armenian, and Cypriot Maronite Arabic , a hybrid of mostly medieval Arabic vernaculars with strong influence from contact with Greek, spoken by approximately people.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Region in the Eastern Mediterranean. For other uses, see Levantine and Levant disambiguation. Not to be confused with Levante or Levent.

Countries and regions of the Levant in the broad, historic meaning equivalent to the Eastern Mediterranean [1]. Countries of the Levant in 20th century usage [2].

Countries and regions sometimes included in the 21st century. Amman Aleppo Beirut Damascus Jerusalem.

See also: Names of the Levant. Far-reaching changes began to take place in the Jewish world at the beginning of the sixteenth century.

Following the expulsion from Spain in there was a period of wandering and political, demographic and social upheaval. On the one hand, this led to an encounter between the Jews who had left Spain and Portugal and the traditions of Ashkenaz, North Africa, Italy and the Orient; it also led to many personal crises, sundered families, and other disasters, which left women as agunot and widows.

From the first, the new government brought order and security, opening up a variety of economic possibilities. Some of them were delayed on the way and settled in the Balkans, Greece and Anatolia, in various cities already under Ottoman rule.

Others came to the borders of Palestine and settled in nearby cities such as Damascus, Aleppo, Sidon and Tripoli in Syria.

Those who stopped in Egypt settled mainly in Alexandria and Cairo. The Jewish communities in all these places grew and thrived in the sixteenth century.

Each community organized its own separate enclave and kept the traditions and customs of its country of origin. The differences between the communities found expression not only in their way of life, which was usually influenced by their surroundings, but also in their The legal corpus of Jewish laws and observances as prescribed in the Torah and interpreted by rabbinic authorities, beginning with those of the Mishnah and Talmud.

The sixteenth century was a time of mutual influence between the communities in the Levant, but at its end the victory clearly belonged to those who had left the Iberian Peninsula.

This was due to their cultural, demographic and economic superiority, which allowed them to assimilate other communities, mainly of Arabic-speakers. It was mostly the women who preserved their Jewish identity in secret and made sure to pass it on to their children, sometimes at the risk of their lives.

But in practice the effects of the expulsion on Jewish family values and on the status of women were minimal, finding expression only in areas of benefit to men and not to women.

One of the few instances in which one may find consideration for women is that of permitting agunot to remarry. A great deal of effort was expended to free agunot and solutions were found for most of the problems that arose, since there were fears that women who were not freed from their bound status would form illicit relationships or leave Judaism entirely.

But usually the halakhic decisors of the sixteenth century, great as they were, were loyal to basic The legal corpus of Jewish laws and observances as prescribed in the Torah and interpreted by rabbinic authorities, beginning with those of the Mishnah and Talmud.

As a rule, the image of women in the eyes of sixteenth-century rabbis was not especially favorable, as is indicated in contemporary sources such as commentaries, prayers, proverbs and Halakhic decisions written by rabbinic authories in response to questions posed to them.

When not specified, "Talmud" refers to the Babylonian Talmud. If for any reason the woman cannot fulfill her obligations, her husband may derogate her rights or take a second wife while he is still married to her.

At the same time, paradoxically, many rabbis viewed women as a threat to be guarded against, since they distracted men from their main purpose and caused them to waste their time on foolish pursuits.

For these rabbis, women were the main obstacle to achieving ethical and spiritual perfection. Woman was the mother of all sin and one could not think about her, gaze at her or be anywhere near her without arousing the evil inclination.

Therefore, women were a threat to the masculine world. This point of view found extreme expression among the sixteenth-century kabbalists, especially in the writings and behavior of the h asidic-kabbalistic groups in Safed.

Among them were many conversos who had returned to Judaism and sought to atone for having converted by reaching the highest level of spiritual and ethical perfection and complete attachment to God.

In their writings, woman is the chief stumbling block to a pure way of life. H ayyim Vital — and other kabbalists. In considering how the attitude and expressions of the sixteenth-century rabbis affected the community, it is obvious that there were gaps between the ethos that degraded women and demanded that men stay away from them and daily reality.

Similarly, women who were blessed with the good qualities required by societal and religious norms won praise and esteem.

Unfortunately, there are no extant contemporary sources written by women, since Jewish women in the Levant were, as a matter of course, not literate.

In this they were different from German and Italian women, who were usually more educated. The few letters written to women and by women most if not all of them with the help of a professional scribe or acquaintance do not mention their feelings or daily routine, but rather emphasize their urgent needs: food, clothing, bedding or shrouds.

Any attempt to describe their way of life is based mainly on judicial- The legal corpus of Jewish laws and observances as prescribed in the Torah and interpreted by rabbinic authorities, beginning with those of the Mishnah and Talmud.

However, a close reading of the responsa literature and other sources reveals various facets of family life, for good and ill. Among the kabbalistic societies in Safed and their followers, the preference for a son arose from the fear that whoever had no son would have no repose in the afterlife.

Mothers did not rejoice if they bore daughters, mainly because their status in the family and in society was determined largely by their ability to bear sons, but probably also because they knew all too well the difficulties their daughters would face in the future.

Also, sons could support the mother in her old age, while daughters left the home and became dependent on their husbands. The poor among them often had to raise funds for the dowry by begging.

For them, assistance to a son was a more secure investment. The longing for male offspring became even stronger after the expulsion from Spain, not only for economic and religious reasons; following the catastrophes, the separation of families and the tribulations endured by the generations nearest the expulsion gave rise in the sixteenth century to an overwhelming and desperate desire for sons who would continue the family line.

The expelled ones and the penitents cry out for sons. Many of them lost their children before and during the years of wandering and prayers for male offspring appear again and again in their writings.

The birth of a daughter is not seen as a blessing. Another outstanding phenomenon in the sixteenth century is the early age at which girls married.

Despite the fact that in The legal corpus of Jewish laws and observances as prescribed in the Torah and interpreted by rabbinic authorities, beginning with those of the Mishnah and Talmud.

While it might be that this is connected to the strong need for continuity which characterized the generations nearest the expulsion, it may also be that marriage at an early age was thought to be a safe means of keeping away from sin.

The betrothal of minor daughters relieved their parents of the constant tension involved in preserving their innocence and modesty.

Although at the time there was also a tendency to marry sons off at an early age, a father might not betroth his minor son, and the betrothal of a son below thirteen years of age was not valid.

This did not apply to daughters. In a society where the best a woman could hope for was to marry and become a mother, it is obvious that her father would see it as his duty, not just as his right, to marry off his daughter early.

It was expected of her that after the marriage took place she would adapt to her new life as women had always done.

Often, conditions changed and one of the sides could not uphold its financial commitments. In each of the instances, the young girl needed a get so that she could remarry, and this made her vulnerable to extortion.

The sources demonstrate another phenomenon: an increase in ill-considered betrothals made while drunk or in levity.

This indicates an atmosphere of disregard for the fate of the women and exploitation of the power that the law granted to fathers in the belief that they would use it for the good of their daughters and their families.

Some scholars believe that Muslim society, in which betrothals of minors were common, influenced Jewish communities in Arab-speaking countries.

But even if the surrounding environment had an influence, the results were nevertheless completely different for Jewish women. According to Islam, a girl married at an early age could appear before the kadi on reaching maturity and sue for the retroactive termination of her marriage.

This was easily done, requiring only a financial arrangement between the families. But according to Jewish law, the annulment of a marriage—the receiving of a get —was possible only if the husband was willing and any demand for a divorce could serve as an opening for extortion and extended deliberations.

Despite the tireless efforts of decisors to find a solution for every instance of doubtful betrothal usually by seeking a technical defect in the betrothal that would allow for annulment , this was not always possible.

A get given under duress, or a get that a man claims to have given under duress, is not valid Codification of basic Jewish Oral Law; edited and arranged by R.

Judah ha-Nasi c. Mishnah Yevamot Often, legitimate claims against the husband were not investigated. Even when it was obvious to the judges that the woman was suffering, that her husband was abusing her or that there were other justifiable causes, they could not release her from the marriage in his stead.

The man had to do this himself, of his own free will. The sixteenth-century rabbis were very strict in this matter. The Moses ben Maimon Rambam , b.

Although in sixteenth-century Palestine there were some rabbis who felt that a wife should not be as a captive to her husband and that it was possible to compel the husband to grant a divorce in certain cases, they were very much in the minority and won no support from their colleagues.

In cases like these, the desire to reach a compromise between the two prevailed, and it is often the wife who was required to be more compliant and tolerant.

As a result, women who had no rich, supportive families to back them economically, psychologically or socially, had almost no hope of obtaining a get without giving up all they possessed.

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